Posted in General pathology, Robbins questions

ROBBINS PATHOLOGY 10TH Edition – Chapter 2 MCQs PDF

COMPILATION OF ROBBINS 10TH EDITION CHAPTER 2 MCQS- PDF DOWNLOAD

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Robbins chapter 2 mcqs

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Posted in General pathology

Differences between the types of human DNA variations

General Pathology Topics

The two most common forms of human DNA variation in the human genome 1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2. Copy number variations (CNVs).

Let’s looks at a few differences between the two human DNA variations. Very important topic for examinations.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNVs)

  1. SNPs are variants at single nucleotide positions and are almost always biallelic.
  2. Roughly 1% of SNPs occur in coding regions.
  3. SNPs may be useful markers if they happen to be coinherited with a disease-associated polymorphism. In other words, the SNP and the causative genetic factor are in linkage disequilibrium.

Copy number variations

  1. CNVs can be biallelic and simply duplicated or,deleted in some individuals.
  2. Approximately 50% of CNVs involve coding sequences.
  3. CNVs are responsible for 5 million and 24 million base pairs of sequence difference between any two individuals.

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Posted in General pathology

Significance of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular fibrillar networks that concentrate antimicrobial substances at sites of infection and trap microbes, helping to prevent their spread. They are produced by neutrophils in response to infectious pathogens (mainly bacteria and fungi) and inflammatory mediators (e.g., chemokines, cytokines [mainly interferons], complement proteins, and ROS). The extracellular traps consist of a viscous meshwork of nuclear chromatin that binds and concentrates granule proteins such as antimicrobial peptides and enzymes. NET formation starts with ROS-dependent activation of an arginine deaminase that converts arginines to citrulline, leading to chromatin decondensation. Other enzymes that are produced in activated neutrophils, such as MPO and elastase, enter the nucleus and cause further chromatin decondensation, culminating in rupture of the nuclear envelope and release of chromatin. In this process, the nuclei of the neutrophils are lost, leading to death of the cells. NETs have also been detected in the blood during sepsis. The nuclear chromatin in the NETs, which includes histones and associated DNA, has been postulated to be a source of nuclear antigens in systemic autoimmune diseases, particularly lupus, in which individuals react against their own DNA and nucleoproteins.

Significance of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)
Significance of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)
Posted in General pathology, Robbins questions

MCQ’S GENERAL PATHOLOGY- REVERSIBLE CELL INJURY with answers and explanations

1. A 50 year old man presented with mild abdominal pain with mildly raised ALT and AST.  Fatty liver was suspected,  which of the following changes is not seen ultrastructurally in this condition?

A)  Generalized swelling of cell and plasma membrane.

B)  Nuclear changes such as pyknosis,  karyorrhexis and karyolysis are seen.

C) Accumulation of “myelin figures” in the cytosol composed of phospholipids derived from damaged cellular membranes.

D) Dilation of the ER, with detachment of polysomes.

Answer: B.  Pyknosis,  karyorrhexis and karyolysis are classic features of apoptosis

2. What is the mechanism behind plasma membrane swelling in reversible cell injury?

A)  Influx of water due to direct damage to Na-K-ATPase pump

B)  Plasma menrane damage leading to increased leakiness to sodium ion.

C)  Depletion of ATP resulting in oxygen deficiency interfering in Na-K-ATPase pump activity.

D)  All of the above

Answer:  D

FOR DETAILED EXPLANATION CLICK HERE:

Check out this excellent blog  on more knowledge and details on this topic:  https://theartofmed.wordpress.com/2015/05/29/pathologic-cell-injury-and-cell-death-i-mechanism-of-reversible-cell-injuries/amp/