Characteristics of Epithelial-Mesenchymal transition
EMT- Epithelial mesenchymal transition 1. It is integral to breast and prostrate cancers. 2. EMT is controlled by SNAIL and TWIST proteins. 3. Down regulation of epithelial markers and upregulation of mesenchymal markers. 4. E cadherin expression is slilenced 5. Strong migratory potential
Robbins pathologic basis of disease 10th edition updates
Robbins pathologic basis of disease 10th edition has a handful of changes and updates when compared to it’s predecessor. Here is a brief note on the chapterwise general pathology updates which are high yield for entrance exams.
Differences between the types of human DNA variations
The two most common forms of DNA variation in the human genome 1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2. Copy number variations (CNVs).
BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.
BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS. Advertisements COVID -19 second wave and journalism in India have introduced us to Black, white and yellow fungus. What are these originally? Let’s decode some terminilogy. 1. BLACK FUNGUS What is being referred to as black fungus? Mucor is being referred to as the black fungus. Is the fungus itself black in colour? No, in a setting of immunosuppression, mucor grows rapidly causing angioinvasion and tissue necrosis. This results in a blackish appearance of the affected area, giving rise to the name. What is the real black fungus? BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS. Dermataceous fungi Some fungii have excess melanin, also called melanized or dermaticious fungi. They are the real black fungi. Moreover, presence of melanin is not uncommon in Histoplasma spp, Aspergillus spp (especially Aspergillus niger) and even candida spp. 2. WHITE FUNGUS What is being referred to as white fungus? BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS. White patches in candida Candida albicans. This fungus has the tendency to produce patchy white coloured lesions, hence the name. 3. YELLOW FUNGUS What is being referred to as yellow fungus? Mucor septicus. This fungus has not been associated with any human infections till now. It’s identification is still a mystery. What is the real yellow fungus? BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS. Aspergillus in culture central blackish pigment and peripheral yellow to white Aspergillus– When cultured, aspergillus has a blackish center due to the melanin, and whitish or yellowish body. Actinomycetes has a unique feature, pus in this infection has a yellow color due to the presence of sulfur granules. On a lighter note! Since we have started color coding fungi why not go ahead and name a few more! PINK FUNGUS- Tinea versicolor– causes pink coloured patches GREEN FUNGUS- Pseudomonas aeruginosa (not a FUNGUS!!!- well who cares!!) BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.
Some gastrointestinal pathogens and their differentiating features.
Gastrointestinal pathogens are very common in routine practice. It takes experience and keen observation to differentiate gastrointestinal pathogens from one another. In case of confusion, go with your ‘GUT’ feeling. Lets look at a few differentiating features of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli. GIARDIA LAMBLIA: Pear shaped trophozoites with 2 ovoid nuclei, present […]