Renal pathology- QUIZ

Useful for Pathology residents preparing for, NEET-SS/ DM- Oncopathology/ DM Histopathogy, Nephropathology Fellowships, FRCPath- Histopathology, American Board of anatomic and clinical pathology.

 

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Posted in Gastrointestinal pathology, Histopathology

Gastrointestinal pathology MCQs

Gastrointestinal pathology MCQs – Useful for Pathology residents preparing for, NEET-SS/ DM- Oncopathology/ DM Histopathology, Fellowships, FRCPath- Histopathology and American Board of anatomic and clinical pathology (AP/CP) boards.

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Posted in Histopathology, Neuropathology

Central nervous system tumors pathology mcq pdf

Central nervous system tumors pathology mcq pdf with answers – Useful for NEET-SS Oncopathology, DM Histopathology, NIMHANS- Neuropathology fellowships and FRCPath-Histopathology.

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Posted in Histopathology, Nephropathology

5 Differences between perilobar and intralobar nephrogenic rests.

Nephrogenic rests are abnormally per­ sistent foci of embryonal cells (still pre­ sent after 36 weeks of gestation) that are potentially capable of developing into nephroblastoma (also called Wilms tumour). The presence of diffuse or multifocal nephrogenic rests is called nephroblastomatosis.

Nephrogenic rests are found in 25-40% of patients with nephroblastoma, and in approximately 1% of term infant autop­sies.

Nephrogenic rests can be found adjacent to nephroblastoma or in the surrounding renal parenchyma. They are classified into perilobar and intralobar types.

Here are 5 differences between perilobar and intralobar nephrogenic rests.

1. LOCATION

Perilobar nephrogenic rests are peripherally located, wheras intralobar nephrogenic rests are randomly intermingled between the renal parenchyma, typically located in the central areas of the lobe.

2. DEMARCATION FROM ADJACENT PARENCHYMA

Perilobar nephrogenic rests are sharply demarcated from the surrounding tissue, whereas intralobar nephrogenic rests are poorly de­marcated, usually infiltrate among native nephrons.

3. STROMA

Perilobar nephrogenic rests have scanty stroma, whereas intralobar nephrogenic rests are and are composed mainly of stromal and epithelial elements.

4. FOCALITY

Perilobar nephrogenic rests are usually multifocal whereas, intralobar nephrogenic rests are mostly unifocal (often single).

5. ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS

Perilobar nephrogenic rests are associated with hemihypertrophy and overgrowth syndromes such as Beckwith-Wiede­mann syndrome. lntralobar nephrogenic rests are associated with Denys-Drash syndrome (which is associated with nephroblastoma, pseudohermaphrodit­ ism, glomerulopathy, and renal failure) and WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumour / nephroblastoma, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation syn­drome).

PERILOBAR AND INTRALOBAR NEPHROGENIC RESTS HISTOPATHOLOGIC PICTURES.

Difference between perilobar and intralobar nephrogenic rests.
Posted in Histopathology, Nephropathology

Renal pathology quiz

Renal pathology quiz on 18/06/21

Useful for Pathology residents preparing for, NEET-SS/ DM- Oncopathology/ DM Histopathogy, Nephropathology Fellowships, FRCPath- Histopathology, American Board of anatomic and clinical pathology.

QUIZ will be live on 18/6/20

Meanwhile you may solve the quizzes below.

Posted in Histopathology, Oncopathology

Tips to study for NEET-SS Oncopathology

NEET-SS Oncopathology is an entrance examination conducted once every year in AUGUST -SEPTEMBER

Anyone aspiring to become an Oncopathologist in India is supposed to clear the exam after completion of the primary degree(MD/DNB).

NEET-SS is an entrance examination conducted once every year in AUGUST -SEPTEMBER.  Anyone aspiring to become an Oncopathologist in India is supposed to clear the exam after completion of the primary degree(MD/DNB).   Every year thousands of aspirants attempt the examination. However, there are merely 13 seats for the said course. Hence the competition is high.  Proper planning and the right resources will definitely get you through.     Here is a step wise approach to study for NEET-SS Oncopathology.  Read Robbins pathologic basis of disease thoroughly- cover to cover. Read histotechniques, grossing and staining and revise them from your MD notes    Here are a few very important topics to cover. Choose either Rosai Ackerman or Sternberg to cover these topics based on your comfort. *Gastrointestinal pathology. *Male and female genital. *Salivary gland *Breast and *Thyroid. WHO updates and recent classifications as well as TNM staging. Revise and you are good to go.
NEET-SS Oncopathology study tips

Every year thousands of aspirants attempt the examination. However, there are merely 13 seats for the said course. The competition is high, ever increasing for NEET-SS Oncopathology.

Proper planning and the right resources will definitely get you through”

Here is a step wise approach to study for NEET-SS Oncopathology.

  1. Read Robbins pathologic basis of disease thoroughly- cover to cover.
  1. Read histotechniques, grossing and staining and revise them from your MD notes
  1. Here are a few very important topics to cover. Choose either Rosai Ackerman or Sternberg to cover these topics based on your comfort. *Gastrointestinal pathology. *Male and female genital. *Salivary gland *Breast and *Thyroid.
  1. WHO updates and recent classifications as well as TNM staging.
  1. Revise and you are good to go.

“So many things are possible, just as long as you don’t know they are impossible.”

–Norton Juster

You may join this telegram channel for daily topic wise Mcqs for DM oncopathology- Pathology mcqs

For weekly multiple choice questions based on the pattern of NEET-SS oncopathology. You my check this site- HOME – Pathology for all

Join the Facebook page for daily questions- Pathology mcq

Hope you found this useful.

Posted in Histopathology, Molecular pathology

Molecular pathology of ADIPOCYTIC TUMORS

Molecular pathology of ADIPOCYTIC TUMORS – based on WHO 2020 Soft tissue and bone tumors.

LIPOMAS

The pathogenesis of lipomas is related to reactivated expression of the HMGA2 protein, which plays a role in the development of the mesodermal lineage during embryogenesis

  1. ANGIOLIPOMA– The majority (80%) have been reported to have low-frequency PRKD2 mutations.
  2. CHONDROID LIPOMA– is characterized by a recurrent t(11;16) (q13;p13) chromosomal translocation.
  3. SPINDLE CELL/PLEOMORPHIC LIPOMA: is characterized 13q deletions /RB GENE.
  4. MYOLIPOMA: Cytogenetic alterations of the HMGA2 gene have been reported in a few cases

LIPOSARCOMA

  1. Atypical lipomatous tumour/well differentiated liposarcoma: characterized by supernumerary ring and giant marker chromosomes,containing amplified sequence of MDM2
  2. DEDIFFERENTIATED liposarcomaAmplified MDM2
  3. MYXOID LIPOSARCOMA– Translocations producing FUS-DDIT3 or rarely EWSR1-DDIT3 fusion transcripts are pathognomonic
  4. PLEOMORPHIC LIPOSARCOMA: Complex karyotypes. . The most frequent mutations involve TP53 and NF1.

OTHER ADIPOCYTIC TUMORS

  1. HIBERNOMA: Cytogenetically, almost all hibernomas have breakpoints in chromosome arm 11q, with a distinctive clustering to 11q13.
  2. LIPOBLASTOMA: The most common numerical change is one or more extra copies of chromosome 8, with or without concurrent rearrangement of 8q11-q13

VIEW THE SHORT VIDEO FOR A QUICK SUMMARY

Posted in Histopathology, Staining

VITAL, SUPRAVITAL AND INTRAVITAL STAINING

Vital, supravital and intravital staining are three different types of staining techniques. However, vital and supravital terms are often used interchangeably.

Let’s look at some of the major differences in staining between the three and why these terms shouldn’t be used interchangeably.

1. VITAL STAINING

1.Contrary to the name, vital stains are taken up by dead cells and not by living  cells.


2. Demonstration of  nuclear staining using a vital stain signifies cells death, because living cells are impermeable to the stain.


3. Example: Tryptan blue and propiodine iodine

VITAL STAINS ATE TOO BULKY OR TOO CHARGED THEY CANNOT ENTER LIVE CELLS- Hence only stain dead cells.

Vital, supravital and intravital staining are three different types of staining techniques. However, vital and supravital terms are often used interchangeably.  Let’s look at some of the major differences in staining between the three and why these terms shouldn’t be used interchangeably.  1. VITAL STAINING  1.Contrary to the name, vital stains are taken up by dead cells and not by living  cells.   2. Demonstration of  nuclear staining using a vital stain signifies cells death, because living cells are impermeable to the stain.   3. Example: Tryptan blue and propiodine iodine  VITAL STAINS ATE TOO BULKY OR TOO CHARGED THEY CANNOT ENTER LIVE CELLS- Hence only stain dead cells.   VITAL STAINS 2. SUPRAVITAL STAINS  1. Supravital staining is a method of staining used in microscopy to examine living cells that have been removed from an organism.  2. Those that enter and stain living cells are called supravital stains     3. Examples New Methylene Blue and Brilliant Cresyl Blue for reticulocyte staining.   Reticulocyte stained SUPRAVITAL stain 3. INTRAVITAL STAIN  1. Intravital staining of living cells is done by injecting the dye into any part of the animal body (either intravenous, intraperitoneal or subcutaneous), producing specific coloration of certain cells, particularly those of the reticulo-endothelial system.  2. Common dyes used are lithium, carmine and India ink.
Vital stains

2. SUPRAVITAL STAINS

1. Supravital staining is a method of staining used in microscopy to examine living cells that have been removed from an organism.

2. Those that enter and stain living cells are called supravital stains

3. Examples New Methylene Blue and Brilliant Cresyl Blue for reticulocyte staining.

Reticulocyte stained SUPRAVITAL stain

3. INTRAVITAL STAIN

1. Intravital staining of living cells is done by injecting the dye into any part of the animal body (either intravenous, intraperitoneal or subcutaneous), producing specific coloration of certain cells, particularly those of the reticulo-endothelial system.

2. Common dyes used are lithium, carmine and India ink.

There you go!! Hope the confusion is cleared.

For multiple choice questions on staining

Check below for a quick summary.

Posted in Histopathology, Microbiology

BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.

BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.
What is the black, white and yellow fungus

COVID -19 second wave and journalism in India have introduced us to Black,  white and yellow fungus.  What are these originally?  Let’s decode some terminilogy.

Before delving in let’s look at ways to differentiate two major opportunistic infections in COVID-19 patients based on morphology- MUCOR and ASPERGILLUS.

1. BLACK FUNGUS

What is being referred to as black fungus?

Mucor is being referred to as the black fungus.

Is the fungus itself black in colour?

No,  in a setting of immunosuppression, mucor grows rapidly causing angioinvasion and tissue necrosis.  This results in a blackish appearance of the affected area,  giving rise to the name.

What is the real black fungus?

BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.
Dermataceous fungi

Some fungii have excess melanin, also called melanized or dermaticious fungi.  They are the real black fungi.  Moreover,  presence of melanin is not uncommon in Histoplasma spp,  Aspergillus spp (especially Aspergillus niger)  and even candida spp.

2. WHITE FUNGUS

What is being referred to as white fungus?

BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.
White patches in candida

Candida albicans.  This fungus has the tendency to produce patchy white coloured lesions,  hence the name.

3. YELLOW FUNGUS

What is being referred to as yellow fungus?

Mucor septicus.  This fungus has not been associated with any human infections till now.  It’s identification is still a mystery.

What is the real yellow fungus?

BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.
Aspergillus in culture central blackish pigment and peripheral yellow to white

Aspergillus– When cultured, aspergillus has a blackish center due to the melanin, and whitish or yellowish body.

Actinomycetes has a unique feature, pus in this infection has a yellow color due to the presence of sulfur granules.

That’s it for now! Thank you.

For Morphologic differences between Mucor and aspergillus check this out!

For more articles

Posted in Histopathology, Microbiology

Some gastrointestinal pathogens and their differentiating features.

Gastrointestinal pathogens are very common in routine practice. It takes experience and keen observation to differentiate gastrointestinal pathogens from one another. In case of confusion, go with your ‘GUT’ feeling.

Lets look at a few differentiating features of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli.

  1. GIARDIA LAMBLIA:

Pear shaped trophozoites with 2 ovoid nuclei, present in the luminal surface. They are 10-15 microns in length and 5-9 microns in width.

GIARDIA IS SEEN IN THE LUMINAL SURFACE

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IS SEEN ATTACHED TO ENTEROCYTES LIKE SMALL BEADS.

2. CRYPTOSOPORIDIUM PARVUM

In tissue biopsies, 2 – 5 μm basophilic round bodies are seen protruding from the apex of enterocytes (“blue beads”) within the cell membrane. Parasites bulge out of apex of epithelial cells

ISOSPORA IS LARGEST AMONG THE THREE. IN CONTRAST TO GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM – ISOSPORA DOES NOT HAVE AN APICAL LOCATION, INSTEAD LOCATED IN THE TIP OF VILLI.

3. ISOSPORA BELLI

Oocysts are generally ovoid to ellipsoid in shape, range from 10-40µm in length by 10-30µm in width. Cysts are present in PARASITO-
PHOROUS VACUOLE. Does not have an apical location.

Look below for a quick summary