Renal pathology- QUIZ

Useful for Pathology residents preparing for, NEET-SS/ DM- Oncopathology/ DM Histopathogy, Nephropathology Fellowships, FRCPath- Histopathology, American Board of anatomic and clinical pathology.

 

QUIZ LINK

Posted in Gastrointestinal pathology, Histopathology

Gastrointestinal pathology MCQs

Gastrointestinal pathology MCQs – Useful for Pathology residents preparing for, NEET-SS/ DM- Oncopathology/ DM Histopathology, Fellowships, FRCPath- Histopathology and American Board of anatomic and clinical pathology (AP/CP) boards.

SOME ILLUSTRATIONS THAT MIGHT INTEREST YOU

Posted in Histopathology, Neuropathology

Central nervous system tumors pathology mcq pdf

Central nervous system tumors pathology mcq pdf with answers – Useful for NEET-SS Oncopathology, DM Histopathology, NIMHANS- Neuropathology fellowships and FRCPath-Histopathology.

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Posted in Histopathology, Nephropathology

Renal pathology quiz

Renal pathology quiz on 18/06/21

Useful for Pathology residents preparing for, NEET-SS/ DM- Oncopathology/ DM Histopathogy, Nephropathology Fellowships, FRCPath- Histopathology, American Board of anatomic and clinical pathology.

QUIZ will be live on 18/6/20

Meanwhile you may solve the quizzes below.

Posted in Female genital pathology, Histopathology

Difference between PSTT ( Placental site trophoblastic tumor) and Choriocarcinoma- Vascular invasion

Difference between PSTT ( Placental site trophoblastic tumor) and Choriocarcinoma- Vascular invasion

Difference between PSTT ( Placental site trophoblastic tumor) and Choriocarcinoma- Vascular invasion.
🎯📟PSTT – invasion is periphery to lumen.
🎯📟Choriocarcinoma- lumen to periphery.

Posted in Histopathology, Oncopathology

Tips to study for NEET-SS Oncopathology

NEET-SS Oncopathology is an entrance examination conducted once every year in AUGUST -SEPTEMBER

Anyone aspiring to become an Oncopathologist in India is supposed to clear the exam after completion of the primary degree(MD/DNB).

NEET-SS is an entrance examination conducted once every year in AUGUST -SEPTEMBER.  Anyone aspiring to become an Oncopathologist in India is supposed to clear the exam after completion of the primary degree(MD/DNB).   Every year thousands of aspirants attempt the examination. However, there are merely 13 seats for the said course. Hence the competition is high.  Proper planning and the right resources will definitely get you through.     Here is a step wise approach to study for NEET-SS Oncopathology.  Read Robbins pathologic basis of disease thoroughly- cover to cover. Read histotechniques, grossing and staining and revise them from your MD notes    Here are a few very important topics to cover. Choose either Rosai Ackerman or Sternberg to cover these topics based on your comfort. *Gastrointestinal pathology. *Male and female genital. *Salivary gland *Breast and *Thyroid. WHO updates and recent classifications as well as TNM staging. Revise and you are good to go.
NEET-SS Oncopathology study tips

Every year thousands of aspirants attempt the examination. However, there are merely 13 seats for the said course. The competition is high, ever increasing for NEET-SS Oncopathology.

Proper planning and the right resources will definitely get you through”

Here is a step wise approach to study for NEET-SS Oncopathology.

  1. Read Robbins pathologic basis of disease thoroughly- cover to cover.
  1. Read histotechniques, grossing and staining and revise them from your MD notes
  1. Here are a few very important topics to cover. Choose either Rosai Ackerman or Sternberg to cover these topics based on your comfort. *Gastrointestinal pathology. *Male and female genital. *Salivary gland *Breast and *Thyroid.
  1. WHO updates and recent classifications as well as TNM staging.
  1. Revise and you are good to go.

“So many things are possible, just as long as you don’t know they are impossible.”

–Norton Juster

You may join this telegram channel for daily topic wise Mcqs for DM oncopathology- Pathology mcqs

For weekly multiple choice questions based on the pattern of NEET-SS oncopathology. You my check this site- HOME – Pathology for all

Join the Facebook page for daily questions- Pathology mcq

Hope you found this useful.

Posted in Histopathology, Molecular pathology

Molecular pathology of ADIPOCYTIC TUMORS

Molecular pathology of ADIPOCYTIC TUMORS – based on WHO 2020 Soft tissue and bone tumors.

LIPOMAS

The pathogenesis of lipomas is related to reactivated expression of the HMGA2 protein, which plays a role in the development of the mesodermal lineage during embryogenesis

  1. ANGIOLIPOMA– The majority (80%) have been reported to have low-frequency PRKD2 mutations.
  2. CHONDROID LIPOMA– is characterized by a recurrent t(11;16) (q13;p13) chromosomal translocation.
  3. SPINDLE CELL/PLEOMORPHIC LIPOMA: is characterized 13q deletions /RB GENE.
  4. MYOLIPOMA: Cytogenetic alterations of the HMGA2 gene have been reported in a few cases

LIPOSARCOMA

  1. Atypical lipomatous tumour/well differentiated liposarcoma: characterized by supernumerary ring and giant marker chromosomes,containing amplified sequence of MDM2
  2. DEDIFFERENTIATED liposarcomaAmplified MDM2
  3. MYXOID LIPOSARCOMA– Translocations producing FUS-DDIT3 or rarely EWSR1-DDIT3 fusion transcripts are pathognomonic
  4. PLEOMORPHIC LIPOSARCOMA: Complex karyotypes. . The most frequent mutations involve TP53 and NF1.

OTHER ADIPOCYTIC TUMORS

  1. HIBERNOMA: Cytogenetically, almost all hibernomas have breakpoints in chromosome arm 11q, with a distinctive clustering to 11q13.
  2. LIPOBLASTOMA: The most common numerical change is one or more extra copies of chromosome 8, with or without concurrent rearrangement of 8q11-q13

VIEW THE SHORT VIDEO FOR A QUICK SUMMARY

Posted in Molecular pathology

Conditions associated with DICER- 1 syndrome

DICER-1 SYNDROME IS A Rare Autosomal Dominant cancer syndrome Caused by inactivating germline mutations in genes encoding DICER-1. It is an RNase involved in the generation of mature miRNA.

CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DICER-1 SYNDROME.

1. PLEUROPULMONARY BLASTOMA:

  • Type I tumors are cyst -like tumors in the lung. They are most common in children aged 2 years and younger and have a good chance of recovery. …
  • Type II tumors are cyst-like with some solid parts. These tumors sometimes spread to the brain or other parts of the body.
  • Type III tumors are solid tumors

2. OVARIAN SERTOLI- LEYDIG CELL TUMOR:

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (SLCT) is a rare cancer of the ovaries. The cancer cells produce and release a male sex hormone called testosterone. The exact cause of this tumor is not known

3. CYSTIC NEPHROMA OF KIDNEY:

Cystic nephroma is a rare kidney neoplasm belonging to the entity of cystic tumours. It is a slow-growing tumour, which develops insidiously, sometimes reaching a considerable size. The diagnosis is more often accidental (except for mass syndrome in children). It is a benign tumour that may be treated by partial sparing nephrectomy

4.MULTINODULAR GOITRE:

Multinodular Goiter (MNG) is defined as the special condition of thyroid glands, where there are multiple lumps (nodules) formed.

5. PITUTARY TUMOR:

Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths that develop in your pituitary gland. Some pituitary tumors result in too much of the hormones that regulate important functions of your body. Some pituitary tumors can cause your pituitary gland to produce lower levels of hormones.

6. OCULAR MEDULLOBLASTOMA:

Medulloblastoma is the commonest childhood malignant central nervous system tumour. It occurs in the midline of the cerebellum

7. EMBRYONAL RHABDOMYOSARCMA:

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) ERMS usually affects children in their first 5 years of life, but it can occur at older ages as well. ERMS tends to occur in the head and neck area, bladder, vagina, or in or around the prostate and testicles.

8.PINEALOBLASTOMA:

Pineoblastoma is more aggressive than other types of pineal gland tumors. Its fast growth usually causes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to build up in the brain. This condition is called hydrocephalus. While pineoblastoma may spread through the CSF in 10% to 20% of cases, most of the time the tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.

Click below for a quick summary

Posted in Histopathology, Staining

VITAL, SUPRAVITAL AND INTRAVITAL STAINING

Vital, supravital and intravital staining are three different types of staining techniques. However, vital and supravital terms are often used interchangeably.

Let’s look at some of the major differences in staining between the three and why these terms shouldn’t be used interchangeably.

1. VITAL STAINING

1.Contrary to the name, vital stains are taken up by dead cells and not by living  cells.


2. Demonstration of  nuclear staining using a vital stain signifies cells death, because living cells are impermeable to the stain.


3. Example: Tryptan blue and propiodine iodine

VITAL STAINS ATE TOO BULKY OR TOO CHARGED THEY CANNOT ENTER LIVE CELLS- Hence only stain dead cells.

Vital, supravital and intravital staining are three different types of staining techniques. However, vital and supravital terms are often used interchangeably.  Let’s look at some of the major differences in staining between the three and why these terms shouldn’t be used interchangeably.  1. VITAL STAINING  1.Contrary to the name, vital stains are taken up by dead cells and not by living  cells.   2. Demonstration of  nuclear staining using a vital stain signifies cells death, because living cells are impermeable to the stain.   3. Example: Tryptan blue and propiodine iodine  VITAL STAINS ATE TOO BULKY OR TOO CHARGED THEY CANNOT ENTER LIVE CELLS- Hence only stain dead cells.   VITAL STAINS 2. SUPRAVITAL STAINS  1. Supravital staining is a method of staining used in microscopy to examine living cells that have been removed from an organism.  2. Those that enter and stain living cells are called supravital stains     3. Examples New Methylene Blue and Brilliant Cresyl Blue for reticulocyte staining.   Reticulocyte stained SUPRAVITAL stain 3. INTRAVITAL STAIN  1. Intravital staining of living cells is done by injecting the dye into any part of the animal body (either intravenous, intraperitoneal or subcutaneous), producing specific coloration of certain cells, particularly those of the reticulo-endothelial system.  2. Common dyes used are lithium, carmine and India ink.
Vital stains

2. SUPRAVITAL STAINS

1. Supravital staining is a method of staining used in microscopy to examine living cells that have been removed from an organism.

2. Those that enter and stain living cells are called supravital stains

3. Examples New Methylene Blue and Brilliant Cresyl Blue for reticulocyte staining.

Reticulocyte stained SUPRAVITAL stain

3. INTRAVITAL STAIN

1. Intravital staining of living cells is done by injecting the dye into any part of the animal body (either intravenous, intraperitoneal or subcutaneous), producing specific coloration of certain cells, particularly those of the reticulo-endothelial system.

2. Common dyes used are lithium, carmine and India ink.

There you go!! Hope the confusion is cleared.

For multiple choice questions on staining

Check below for a quick summary.