Posted in General pathology, Robbins questions



Which of the following statements is false regarding necrosis?

A) Necrosis is always pathological

B) Caseous necrosis is most common in the brain

C) Caseous necrosis is characteristic of a tubercular granuloma

D) Morphologically, necrotic cells show increased eosinophilia in a hematoxylin and eosin staining

Answer: B- Liquefactive necrosis occurs in the brain. Caseous necrosis occurs in all organs except the brain

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Posted in General pathology, Robbins questions


1. A 50 year old man presented with mild abdominal pain with mildly raised ALT and AST.  Fatty liver was suspected,  which of the following changes is not seen ultrastructurally in this condition?

A)  Generalized swelling of cell and plasma membrane.

B)  Nuclear changes such as pyknosis,  karyorrhexis and karyolysis are seen.

C) Accumulation of “myelin figures” in the cytosol composed of phospholipids derived from damaged cellular membranes.

D) Dilation of the ER, with detachment of polysomes.

Answer: B.  Pyknosis,  karyorrhexis and karyolysis are classic features of apoptosis

2. What is the mechanism behind plasma membrane swelling in reversible cell injury?

A)  Influx of water due to direct damage to Na-K-ATPase pump

B)  Plasma menrane damage leading to increased leakiness to sodium ion.

C)  Depletion of ATP resulting in oxygen deficiency interfering in Na-K-ATPase pump activity.

D)  All of the above

Answer:  D


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Posted in General pathology, Robbins questions


1.Correctly matched with organ and stem cell niche are all except?

A)  Intestine- crypts

B)  Eyes- limbus of cornea

C)  Brain- periventricular zones

D)  Bone marrow- Paratrabecular area

Answer: D- Bone marrow stem cell niche is – peri-sinisoidal region.

2. Which is the true statement

A)  Rb gene is the key regulator of G2M cell cycle transition.

B) Rb is active in hypophospholylated state

C) MDM2 protein activates p53

D)  p53 activation leads to cell cycle progression

Answer: B – is true, Rb is the regulator of G1/S phase, MDM2 protein inhibits p53 and p53 active leads to transient cell cycle arrest.

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Posted in General pathology, Robbins questions


1.All are true about receptors with tyrosine kinase activity except?

A) Downstream phosphorylation is a common pathway of signal transduction

B) Changes in receptor geometry can stimulate intrinsic receptor protein kinase activity

C) The cellular homologue of the transforming protein of the Rous sarcoma virus, called Src, is the
prototype of this family.

Answer: C – src is a prototype of non- receptor tyrosine kinase family

2. Which one is matched correctly?

A) EGFR- synonymous to ERB-B2

B) Her-2-neu -ERB-B1

C) TGF-beta- Inflammatory cytokine

D) Hepatocyte growth factor- Scatter factor.

Answer- D – erb-b1 is EGFR, erb-b2 is her2-! and TGF-beta is anti-inflammatory

3. Which of the following is false about collagen ?

A) Collagen I,V and XI are heterotrimers

B) Defects in collagen occur in marfan syndrome

C) Helix formation occurs in the golgi apparatus

D) Cross-linking occurs in the extracellular space

Answer: B- Marfan syndrome is caused by defects in fibrillin

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Tomorrow’s topic CELL CYCLE

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Posted in General pathology, Robbins questions


Q1. Which of the following is not matched correctly?

A) Lysosome- Autophagy

B) Endosomal vescicles- shuttle internalized materials outside the cell

C) Proteosome- Degrades tagged proteins

D) Peroxisomes- Breaks down very long chain fatty acids.

Answer: B- Endosomal vesicles- shuttle internalized materials to other organelles inside the cell

2. Identify the cytoskeletal protein shown in the image

Clues: Most abundant and 5-9 nm in diameter

A) Actin

B) Myosin

C) Desmin

D) Laminin

Answer: A –

Actin microfilaments are 5- to 9-nm diameter fibrils formed
from the globular protein actin (G-actin), the most abundant cytosolic protein in cells. G-actin monomers noncovalently polymerize into long filaments (F-actin) that intertwine to form double stranded helices with a defined polarity

3. All are true regarding protein synthesis except?

A) Membrane bound ribosomes in the RER translate mRNA.

B) Chaperones assist folding of proteins.

C) From the RER, proteins and lipids destined for other organelles or extracellular export are shuttled into the Golgi apparatus

D) O- linked oligosaccharides are converted into N- linked Oligosaccharides in golgi apparatus.

Answer: D –

N-linked oligosaccharides are pruned and extended in a stepwise fashion into O-linked oligosaccharides in the golgi . Some of this glycosylation is important in sorting molecules
to lysosomes (via the mannose-6-phosphate receptor); other glycosylation adducts are important for cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions or for clearing senescent cells (e.g., platelets and erythrocytes).

References: Robbins and cotran pathologic basis of disease 10 th edition.


Posted in General pathology, Robbins questions


  1. All of the following are part of functional non-protein coding sequences except?

A) Non-coding regulatory RNA

B) Promoter and Enhancer regions

C) Exons

D) Centromere.

Answer: C

2. True statement about histone organization are all except?

A) Histone subunits are negatively charged

B) Nucleosomes are comprised of octamers of histone proteins encircled by 1.8 147 bp DNA loops

C)  Euchromatin is transcriptionally active

D) Histone acetylation opens up the chromatin

Answer: A:- Histones are positively charges and DNA are negatively charges.

3. True about CRISPR/Cas9 system?

A) High precision gene editing system

B) Non-homologous end joining is better than homologous end joining to repair DNA breaks.

C) Cas9 is a dual RNA guided DNA endonuclease enzyme.

D) CRISPR stands for- Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

ANSWER: B: – Homologous end joining is superior to Nonhomologouals end joining.

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