Posted in General pathology

Robbins pathologic basis of disease 10th edition updates

Robbins pathologic basis of disease 10th edition has a handful of changes and updates when compared to it’s predecessor.

Here is a brief note on the chapterwise general pathology updates which are high yield for entrance exams.

ROBBINS 10TH EDITION CHAPTERWISE UPDATES

CHAPTER 1- CELL

  • Satellite DNA– A major component of centromeres is so-called satellite DNA, consisting of large arrays—up to megabases in length—of repeating sequences (from 5 bp up to 5 kb). Although classically associated with spindle apparatus attachment, satellite DNA is also important in maintaining the dense, tightly packed organization of heterochromatin.
  • Gene Editing and CRISPR- An exciting new development that allows high-fidelity genome editing may usher in the next era of the molecular revolution. This advance comes from a wholly unexpected source: the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated genes (Cas), such as the Cas9 nuclease.
Robbins pathologic basis of disease 10th edition has a handful of changes and updates when compared to it's predecessor. Here is a brief note on the chapterwise updates which are high yield for entrance exams. **ROBBINS 10TH EDITION CHAPTERWISE UPDATES** **CHAPTER 1- CELL** * ***Satellite DNA****- A major component of centromeres is so-called satellite DNA, consisting of large arrays—up to megabases in length—of repeating sequences (from 5 bp up to 5 kb). Although classically associated with spindle apparatus attachment, satellite DNA is also important in maintaining the dense, tightly packed organization of heterochromatin. * * ***Gene Editing and CRISPR- ****An exciting new development that allows high-fidelity genome editing may usher in the next era of the molecular revolution. This advance comes from a wholly unexpected source: the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated genes (Cas), such as the Cas9 nuclease.* **CHAPTER 2- ADAPTATIONS AND INJURY** * ***Ferroptosis- ****Only discovered in 2012, ferroptosis is a distinct form of cell death that is triggered when excessive intracellular levels of iron or reactive oxygen species overwhelm the glutathione-dependent antioxidant defenses. * **CHAPTER 3-INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR** * ***Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)- ****NETs were mentioned in the previous edition it is further elaborated in the latest edition. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular fibrillar networks that concentrate antimicrobial substances at sites of infection and trap microbes, helping to prevent their spread.* **CHAPTER 6- IMMUNITY** * ***Rejection of tissue transplants:*** *Elaborated compared to the previous edition*. **CHAPTER 7- NEOPLASIA** * ***A few newly added proto-oncogenes: *** 1. FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) Point mutation or small duplications in Leukemia. 2. GTP-binding (G) proteins- GNAQ Point mutation in Uveal melanoma. 3. GTP-binding (G) proteins- GNAS Point mutation in Pituitary adenoma. * ***A few newly added tumor suppessor genes:*** 1. SDHB, SDHD (Succinate dehydrogenase complex subunits B and D TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation) seen in Familial paraganglioma, familial pheochromocytoma. * ***Elaboration of oncogenic activities of E6 an E7 proteins of human papilloma virus (HPV)*** 1. In the older edition it was mentioned that the E6 protein of HPV inactivates p53. In the 10th edition it is mentioned that in addition to inactivation of p53, E6 protein also increases telomerase expression (TERT). **CHAPTER 8- INFECTIOUS DISEASES** * *Updates on the SARSCoV2 virus*
Crispr/ cas9 system update Robbins 10 th edition

CHAPTER 2- ADAPTATIONS AND INJURY

  • Ferroptosis- Only discovered in 2012, ferroptosis is a distinct form of cell death that is triggered when excessive intracellular levels of iron or reactive oxygen species overwhelm the glutathione-dependent antioxidant defenses.

CHAPTER 3-INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR

  • Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)NETs were mentioned in the previous edition it is further elaborated in the latest edition. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular fibrillar networks that concentrate antimicrobial substances at sites of infection and trap microbes, helping to prevent their spread.

CHAPTER 6- IMMUNITY

  • Rejection of tissue transplants: Elaborated compared to the previous edition.

CHAPTER 7- NEOPLASIA

  • A few newly added proto-oncogenes:
  1. FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) Point mutation or small duplications in Leukemia.
  2. GTP-binding (G) proteins- GNAQ Point mutation in Uveal melanoma.
  3. GTP-binding (G) proteins- GNAS Point mutation in Pituitary adenoma.
  • A few newly added tumor suppessor genes:
  1. SDHB, SDHD (Succinate dehydrogenase complex subunits B and D TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation) seen in Familial paraganglioma, familial pheochromocytoma.
  • Elaboration of oncogenic activities of E6 an E7 proteins of human papilloma virus (HPV)
Robbins pathologic basis of disease 10th edition has a handful of changes and updates when compared to it's predecessor.  Here is a brief note on the chapterwise updates which are high yield for entrance exams.  **ROBBINS 10TH EDITION CHAPTERWISE UPDATES** **CHAPTER 1- CELL** * ***Satellite DNA****- A major component of centromeres is so-called  satellite DNA, consisting of large arrays—up to megabases  in length—of repeating sequences (from 5 bp up to 5 kb).  Although classically associated with spindle apparatus  attachment, satellite DNA is also important in maintaining  the dense, tightly packed organization of heterochromatin. * * ***Gene Editing and CRISPR- ****An exciting new development that allows high-fidelity  genome editing may usher in the next era of the molecular  revolution. This advance comes from a wholly unexpected  source: the discovery of clustered regularly interspaced short  palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated genes  (Cas), such as the Cas9 nuclease.* **CHAPTER 2- ADAPTATIONS AND INJURY** * ***Ferroptosis- ****Only discovered in 2012, ferroptosis is a distinct  form of cell death that is triggered when excessive intracellular levels of iron or reactive oxygen species overwhelm  the glutathione-dependent antioxidant defenses. * **CHAPTER 3-INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR** * ***Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)- ****NETs were mentioned in the previous edition it is further elaborated in the latest edition. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular  fibrillar networks that concentrate antimicrobial substances  at sites of infection and trap microbes, helping to prevent  their spread.* **CHAPTER 6- IMMUNITY** * ***Rejection of tissue transplants:*** *Elaborated compared to the previous edition*.  **CHAPTER 7- NEOPLASIA** * ***A few newly added proto-oncogenes: *** 1. FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) Point mutation or small duplications  in Leukemia.  2. GTP-binding (G) proteins- GNAQ Point mutation in Uveal melanoma.  3. GTP-binding (G) proteins- GNAS Point mutation in Pituitary adenoma.  * ***A few newly added tumor suppessor genes:*** 1. SDHB, SDHD (Succinate dehydrogenase  complex subunits B  and D TCA cycle, oxidative  phosphorylation) seen in Familial paraganglioma, familial  pheochromocytoma.  * ***Elaboration of oncogenic activities of E6 an E7 proteins of human papilloma virus  (HPV)***  1. In the older edition it was mentioned that the E6 protein of HPV inactivates p53. In the 10th edition it is mentioned that in addition to inactivation of p53, E6 protein also increases telomerase expression (TERT).  **CHAPTER 8- INFECTIOUS DISEASES** * *Updates on the SARSCoV2 virus*
Human papilloma virus update Robbins pathology 10th edition
  1. In the older edition it was mentioned that the E6 protein of HPV inactivates p53. In the 10th edition it is mentioned that in addition to inactivation of p53, E6 protein also increases telomerase expression (TERT).

CHAPTER 8- INFECTIOUS DISEASES

  • Updates on the SARSCoV2 virus
Posted in Histopathology, Microbiology

BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.

BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.
What is the black, white and yellow fungus

COVID -19 second wave and journalism in India have introduced us to Black,  white and yellow fungus.  What are these originally?  Let’s decode some terminilogy.

Before delving in let’s look at ways to differentiate two major opportunistic infections in COVID-19 patients based on morphology- MUCOR and ASPERGILLUS.

1. BLACK FUNGUS

What is being referred to as black fungus?

Mucor is being referred to as the black fungus.

Is the fungus itself black in colour?

No,  in a setting of immunosuppression, mucor grows rapidly causing angioinvasion and tissue necrosis.  This results in a blackish appearance of the affected area,  giving rise to the name.

What is the real black fungus?

BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.
Dermataceous fungi

Some fungii have excess melanin, also called melanized or dermaticious fungi.  They are the real black fungi.  Moreover,  presence of melanin is not uncommon in Histoplasma spp,  Aspergillus spp (especially Aspergillus niger)  and even candida spp.

2. WHITE FUNGUS

What is being referred to as white fungus?

BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.
White patches in candida

Candida albicans.  This fungus has the tendency to produce patchy white coloured lesions,  hence the name.

3. YELLOW FUNGUS

What is being referred to as yellow fungus?

Mucor septicus.  This fungus has not been associated with any human infections till now.  It’s identification is still a mystery.

What is the real yellow fungus?

BLACK FUNGUS WHITE FUNGUS AND YELLOW FUNGUS.
Aspergillus in culture central blackish pigment and peripheral yellow to white

Aspergillus– When cultured, aspergillus has a blackish center due to the melanin, and whitish or yellowish body.

Actinomycetes has a unique feature, pus in this infection has a yellow color due to the presence of sulfur granules.

That’s it for now! Thank you.

For Morphologic differences between Mucor and aspergillus check this out!

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